P0f v2 is a versatile passive OS fingerprinting tool. P0f can identify the system on machines that connect to your box, machines you connect to, and even machines that merely go thru or near your box. All this even if the device is behind a fascist packet firewall, when our favourite active scanner can't do much.
P0f will also detect what the remote system is hooked up to (be it Ethernet, DSL, OC3, or avian carriers), how far it is located, what's its uptime... and will often detect NAT, firewall presence, and even the name of the other guy's ISP. Not a big deal? It's still passive. It does not generate any network traffic. No name lookups, no traffic to the victim, no ARIN queries, no traceroute.
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